Faculty of Textile Science and Technology Research Activity2016|Shinshu Univ

32Fiber Materials EngineeringYasushi MurakamiProfessorBreaking new ground in materials, processes, and systems with the ultimate goal of energy self-sufficiencyDepartment of Chemistry and MaterialsThe optical materials and inorganic nanofiber materials that my lab has developed are unique in the world, and they are actually being used. My current focus is energy self-sufficiency. If biomass could be dried without applying too much energy, it would be possible to utilize marine resources as well, and if electricity could be generated efficiently from heat, we would be able to convert the long wavelength range of sunlight into electricity.Professor Murakami joined the Faculty of Textile Science and Technology at Shinshu University in 1993 and took his current position in 2007. He spent ve years working as the lead researcher for the knowledge cluster creation project starting in 2007, during which time he spearheaded advanced collaboration between industry and academia. His area of research is material chemistry.A project develops into major research when a new and unprecedented vision is proposed. My hope for my students is that they will grow into researchers who can propose such visions.Outlook for researchIn the development of new materials, failure is more common than success. My goal is to foster the development of tough and resilient researchers.Outlook for students after graduationWe select only research that is truly necessary to solve society’s problems and strive to break new ground with our work.Titanium oxide nanober used as a photo catalystInvestigation of HTW and SCW as a new chemical reaction environmentNanober production from agricultural resourcesFunctional Materials from waste biomassA highly active and long-life platinum/silica fuel cell catalystFiber Materials EngineeringProduction of Functional Materials from Biomass by Using Only WaterDepartment of Chemistry and Materials We are studying biomass conversion in high-temperature water (HTW) and supercritical water (SCW). HTW refers to water in its liquid state below its critical temperature and pressure (374ºC, 22.1 MPa). It becomes a highly compressible fluid called SCW above this point. We are also using a water jet machine for wet pulverization treatment of biomass, as water is the most environmentally benign solvent. The target biomass are wood (lignin), fish scale (protein), squid pen (chitin). For example, we are trying to produce a chitin nanofiber from a squid pen by using a water jet machine.Mitsumasa OsadaAssociate ProfessorPh. D. Tohoku Univ. Japan. 2005. Assoc. Prof. Ichinoseki National Coll. of Tech. 2006-2014. Visiting Scholar, University of Michigan, USA. 2007-2008. Assoc. Prof. Shinshu Univ. 2014-.An advantage of biomass conversion in HTW and SCW is that hot water can serve as a solvent, a reactant, and a catalyst. While many biomass (e.g., protein and chitin) are not water-soluble at ambient conditions, most are readily solubilized in HTW or SCW. In addition, H+ and OH- concentrations of HTW are higher than those of ambient water. The acid or base catalyzed reactions also proceed without adding catalysts.Outlook for researchGraduates work at chemical, food, and pharmaceutical companies as an engineer and a researcher. I hope that the graduates will make a big impact in the eld of new environmental benign chemical engineering.Outlook for students after graduation超臨界水とは●超臨界流体固体液体気体圧力[MPa]22.1 温度[ºC]3740.1(常圧)1000超臨界水臨界点High-temperature water(HTW)and Supercritical water(SCW)Temperature [ºC]Pressure [MPa]Ambient conditionSCWCritical PointSolidLiquidGas2004006001197525Pressure24MPapHpOHTemperature[oC]Properties of HTW and SCWThe neutral pH of water is controlled by temperature and pressure.Waste BiomassFunctionalMaterialsProtein(Fish scale)CollagenPeptideLignin(Wood)Phenoliccompoundsβ-Glucan(Mushroom)Chitin(Crab)Oligo-saccharideHigh-temperature water


page 33